Yerusha: Zsidóság és kulturális antropológia - tudományos online folyóirat Yerusha: Zsidóság és kulturális antropológia - tudományos online folyóirat - yerusha, yerushaonline, zsidóság, mediterráneum, kelet varázsa, lebegő szigetek, kinderjohren, or-zse, online folyóirat, kultúrális antropológia, olasz zsidóság, jemeni zsidóság, genizakutatás, scheiber sándor, holokauszt
CEDAKA - צדקה
A világ zsidó közösségeire egységesen, minden időben és helyen jellemző az irányzatoktól független, világ jobbá tételébe vetett, alapvető hit.

A judaizmus meghatározó princípiuma a cedaka elvrendszerén alapuló társadalometika. A cedaka komplex fogalma a társadalmi igazságosság szinonimája. (héber nyelven a cedek szó igazságot, a cedaka igazságosságot jelent) A nyugati civilizáció és a kereszténység legfőbb etikai értékei - a humánum, az emberi méltóság tiszteletben tartása, a szolidaritás, a kölcsönös segítségnyújtás, a tolerancia - ezen az ősi zsidó alapelven nyugszanak, mely mintegy átöröklődött a nyugati civilizációba.
Rovatunkban a társadalmi igazságosság, az emberi jogok, a szociáletika néhány aspektusának elemezésére és megértésére törekszünk. Foglalkozni kívánunk a társadalmi diszkrimináció jelenségével, a társadalom margójára szorított csoportok – pl. a szegénységben élők, romák, fogyatékosok, menekültek, LMBT - közösség -, helyzetével valamint az antiszemitizmussal kapcsolatos dilemmákkal is.
A zsidó értékek lényegileg nem különböznek az általános etikai értékrendtől. Ugyanakkor a zsidóság társadalometikával foglalkozó gondolkodói az alapelveket a Szentírásból és annak magyarázataiból, a Talmudból vagy későbbi zsidó kommentárokból vezetik le.

The Noise of the Creation – Analysis of the Novel “Seven Days in the Life of Avraham Bogatir” by Gyorgy Kardos, from the viewpoint of the philosophy of dialogue
This essay attempts to provide a new interpretation of Gyorgy Kardos’s novel, Seven Days in the Life of Avraham Bogatir, from the perspective of the philosophy of dialogue, based on the works of Franz Rosenzweig and Martin Buber. Both the „Seven Days” in the title and the motto of the novel refer to the biblical creation story. According to Rosenzweig, creation is not the birth of order from chaos, on the contrary: it is the decomposition of the unity’s order into the pieces of chaos. And in this beginning, there is no language to make a connection between them.

Author: Bartók Ágnes, MA

The STRANGERS and the Attitudes towards Strangers in Europe
The goal of our paper is to provide some conceptual arguments and empirical results to the phenomena of xenophobia based on two quantitative sociological surveys. The researches were carried out a few years before the recent refugee crisis, so the surveys can be recognized as antecedent to the shocking events of the last year. The dramatic year of 2015 with the refugee crises makes extremely interesting to examine how the attitudes towards strangers in different countries of Europe have changed earlier, and how the crises led to changes in the general attitudes toward immigrants, towards Europe and towards nation-states. On the other hand, from an analytical point of view to understand xenophobia in operation the temporal distance has advantages because attitudes towards strangers and immigrants can be examined in a significantly less tense and politically less hysterical world. Besides, we are not only interested in the extent of xenophobia but also searching for more typical sociological determinants, and also cognitive-affective social psychological mechanisms which may influence everyday attitudes towards foreigners.

Author: Prof. Dr. Örkény Antal, PhD, DSc

Tzedakah for the exiles of the numerus clausus studying in Italy
The “exiles of the numerus clausus” (1920) – Hungarian Jews, who between the two world wars became migrant students under the pressure of the numerus clausus law, were supported by Hungarian Jewry during their studies abroad in various forms of tzedakah. The emigration of numerus clausus exiles started as a spontaneous movement, but the Central Jewish Student Aid Committee rendered it more organized with the aim of preventing the anti-Semitic numerus clausus law’s goals: pushing out Jews from intelligentsia and reversing Jewish social mobility. As an impact of the well-organized tzedakah, Hungarian Jews of lower middle class origin, who were the first generation in their families to acquire higher education, were also able to graduate from universities abroad. This article presents the sources of tzedakah specifically aimed at numerus clausus exiles studying in Italy. In addition, a group of archival sources is presented that identifies a group of numerus clausus exiles.

Author: Kelemen Ágnes Katalin, Ph.D. - hallgató

The article overviews the biography of Béla Székely (1892-1955) journalist and psychologist. It summarizes three periods of his life activities. 1. Between 1918 and 1926 he was a journalist and Zionist activist in Transylvania, founder of the weekly Új Kelet, author of A Country in Travail, a travel report of his visit in Palestine. 2. Between 1926 and1938 he was a leftist journalist, psychologist, a friend of the poet Attila József, editor of the psychological journal Emberismeret. 3. Between 1938 and 1955 he was immigrant in Argentina, a well-known psychologist in Latin America, and supported the Hungarian Jewry after the Holocaust.

Author: Prof. Erős Ferenc

The Halukkah. Various Thoughts about a Debatable Aid System
It is a well-known fact that there are no dogmas in Judaism, however there are quite a few well-established ideas that cannot be questioned easily. One of these basic religious traditions has an utmost importance: the focal point of the Jewish religion is the Holy City of Jerusalem and the Land of the Holy One. This idea follows the Jews in their everyday religious practices from the womb to the grave. The whole Jewish existence outside of the Holy Land was considered to be a temporal phase during the Middle Ages, and the longing for the ancient homeland never ceased to be alive in the Jewish mind. One of the most important achievements of Rabbinical Judaism has been the emphasis on the land, which they had to leave behind for certain reasons but which they have never abandoned entirely. Beside the vivid pictures of the Holy City and the Holy Land in everyday and festive Jewish liturgy, the sometimes strong, sometimes weaker ties between the Diaspora and the Jewish communities of the Land of Israel not only kept the memory of the holy places alive but helped the Jewish people to be in physical contact with their former homeland. These ties had very practical, i.e. financial aspects, as well. The Jewish communities in the Holy Land survived with the help of the generous support of the Jews in the Diaspora, that developed into an elaborated system of donation called Halukkah in Hebrew. The following article the author intends to explore the different aspects of these practical connections between the Diaspora Jews and the Jewish communities of the Holy Land in the light of the traditional rabbinical literature, and the modern Jewish press in Central East Europe.

Author: Dr. Kárpáti Judit, Ph.D.